ROAD SAFETY MEASURES BY USING ANDROID, IOT

Road accidents are undesired events that lead to injury or death. The core concept of road safety accidents is to prevent all types of injuries with the help of speedometer that measure the speed of the driver. The number of road accidents increases day by day and reasons arise due to over speeding. If the new driver is driving who don’t know more about traffic rule and driving also then there is a chances of increasing road accidents.

The Main cause of accidents and crashes are due to human errors. Some of the common behavior of humans which results in accident- Over Speeding, Drunken Driving, Red light Jumping etc. if the road user are behaved very poorly then penalties are required to improve their behaviour. Government is concerning about the road safety. Here are few reasons which helped to reduce the number of Road Accidents in the country- Speed Detection Device. The device measures the speed at which a vehicle is traveling. If the speed is over and above the prescribed limit, the message is sent to parent’s mobile number [1][7].

If the person is traveling in the cab and he/she feels something phishing for such situation, a third mode is introduced which is a cab mode. This mode works when user shakes the mobile phone and the shake will be detected. Road accidents cannot be stopped despite providing the best possible roads, but we can improve the safety of the road and minimize the accidents. Government should have to take the action regarding of Banning drivers from using hand-held mobile phones, high speed limit and non-use of alcohol. Improper design of road also the cause of road accidents.

  1. RISK FACTOR

Use of mobile phones during driving is one of major factor of accident. Human factor that contribute significantly to increasing number of road accidents. Drunken driving, over speeding are the reasons of road accidents. To reduce the number of road accidents both society and government should have to work together.

III. EXISTING TECHNOLOGY

Advanced technologies are applied to many transportation problems that are useful for improving the behaviour related to road accidents. To reduce the number of road accidents we first identify the best speed detector and select the appropriate countermeasures.

There are so many technologies for reducing road accidents –

  1. a) Machine Vision- This technique is useful for detection of vehicle and monitoring of pavement condition (surface cracking), improve riding performances [1].
  2. b) Expert System- To reduce the number of road accidents the approach that is expert system for taking the right decision by gathering the knowledge of safety control.
  3. c) Vehicle Location System– In this technique data from one or more vehicle may collected by a vehicle tracking system. GPS is useful for determine the location of vehicle [2][3].
  4. d) Smart Highways- For improving the road condition, traffic light, street lighting, monitoring the road condition.

So these are the approaches for overcome the problem of road accident.

For measuring the speed of the vehicle, speedometer is used .This device measures the accurate speed at which vehicle is travelling. If the speed is over and above the prescribed limit (20 km\hr.), the message is sent to parent’s mobile number.

Road bumps tools are effective for road maintenance and keeping vehicles speed down and vary in length. Road bumps provide data on all types of road like-dirt, concrete, gravel etc. Basically road bumps uses your Android device’ GPS and accelerometer to measure the roughness of road.   Vehicle monitoring (Black box) technology is used to record the data and provide analysis as feedback to the driver. This technology helps to indicate the vehicle alert if the vehicle parameter is exceeded like-high acceleration. Driving behaviour is continuously measured that is difficult as compare to other technology. Accurate data is provided to the driver. In order to measure the location of the driver, continuously observation needed in this technology.

 

  1. MODES

 

Nearly everyone depends on their cell phone for checking social media, making calls, and sending text messages. When people are travelling or running errands, their phone is going with them. Unfortunately, many people use their phones while they’re driving and cause car accidents that can injure or kill people. Any time the driver is distracted with a cell phone in hand, they’re driving dangerously and are risking other lives on the road as well as their own. Holding a phone to talk means that one hand is off the wheel, which greatly reduces the driver’s control of the vehicle. They won’t be able to maneuver safely or quickly if an emergency happens.

Using a phone also means the driver’s eyes and focus are now on completing a task with the phone instead of the road. Taking eyes off the road for a while can have horrible consequences, especially when one is traveling at high speeds on highways. If someone needs to brake, avoid, or use their horn to alert another driver about something, they may not have enough time because they weren’t paying attention. The use of mobile phones while driving took 2,138 lives last year on the roads every day, according to data released by the transport ministry. So, we have developed different modes so that the user while using vehicle may be safe while driving, travelling in the cab and even for parent so that they can track their child.

Application begins with the speedometer which is designed using canvas. As the speed increases the bars get added to indicate the increase in speed. If the user is just simply using the application without registering himself, he will get this feature of checking out the speed of the vehicle. If the user wants to access functions of the application, he must register in the application. Once the user has registered, he/she can access the functions the login using the credentials. The registration data is handled by database and for database sqLiteDatabase package is used.

Working-

  1. Import sqLiteDatabase package.
  2. Implement SQLiteOpenHelper to the java class.
  3. Add the table to the database with the needed attributes – username, password, name, phone number.
  4. Adding and deletion in the table is done by sqLiteDatabase.execSQL () function.
  5. During login the values are checked using function getReadableDatabse ().
  6. The user is registered or not is check using the cursor which checks the count that user has registered or not if the value of cursor is 1 that means that user is registered, and it will result in successful login.
  7. In last the database is closed so that the data should not leak.

After the login into the application the user can access the rest functionality of the application. The user can also get directly access the google maps by using the floating button, it takes the user to the map pointing the current location. There are three modes described further –

  1. Driving Mode-When the user is driving a vehicle, he usually receives phone call and due to the ringing of the phone he gets distracted and pick up the call which results in rolling of the eyes from the road to his phone which may results into accident or any miss happening. So, the application sets a limit 20km/hr if the user is speeding over this limit then he will not be able to pick up the phone call which will result in stopping the user to get distracted due to phone call while driving. The speed is continuously been calculated by the application through GPS of the user cell-phone then the speed is compared with the set limit if the user is exceeding the set limit then the application automatically turns the phone on silent mode so that the user may not be distracted by the phone call he will receive while exceeding speed limit 20km/hr.

Working-

  1. By accessing system service – “Location_Service” locationListener and locationManager retrieve the values.
  2. Android givesapplications the access to the location services supported by the device through classes in theLocation package. The central component of the location framework is the LocationManager system service, it provides APIs to determine location and bearing of the underlying device (if available).
  3. Location Listener contains latitudes and longitudes.
  4. Values are updated through GPS_PROVIDER whenever the location changes.

theta = lon1 – lon2
distance = sin(deg2rad(lat1)) *sin(deg2rad(lat2)) + cos(deg2rad(lat1)) *cos(deg2rad(lat2)) *

  1. cos(deg2rad(theta))
    distance = acos(distance)
    distance = rad2deg(distance)

Theta contains the difference of longitudes

lon1 = initial longitude, lon2 = changed longitude

lat1 = initial latitude, lat2 = changes latitude

Deg2rad converts the value from degree to radian

  1. speed = distance/time

If (speed > 20)

By accessing system service – “Audio Service” access to handle AudioManager is achieved.

Turn on the silent mode by setting ringer mode as silent.

  1. Parent’s Mode- Parents are generally worried about the speed of their children while driving vehicle. Over speeding is the reason of many fatal happenings. The application allows parents to set the speed limit for their children and if they cross that speed, they will get the text message with the last maximum speed they were on. It helps parents to track their child that they may not over speed and as well as child to get alert for not over speeding as the parent’s will be notified.

Working-

  1. Suppose maximum speed is set up as 50km/hr
  2. The speed will be detected using the same way as it was done in driving mode.
  3. Till the vehicle is moving

If (speed>50)

Update max speed by the current speed

  1. Send a text message to the saved parents’ number having last maximum speed recorded. Message is sent by importing SmsManager package.
  2. Create an object of smsManager object and send the message using function smsManager.sendTextMessage ().

The message will be sent to the saved number and the parents will be informed about the maximum speed of the child.

  1. Cab Mode- The additional feature is added here for the safety of the user travelling in the cab. This mode works when the user shakes the phone in any sense of wrong happening. In this mode when the user traveling in the cab senses some mis happening then the user will shake the phone and the shake will be detected and the text message will send to the near one of the one using the app while travelling in the cab with the current location and the message that the user is in some danger. The shake is detected by the accelerometer sensor, the threshold limit is set and whenever that limit cross the threshold the shake is detected.

Working-

  1. Most Android-powered devices have built-in sensors that measure motion, environmental conditions and orientation. These sensors are used in providing raw data with precision and accuracy and are very useful in observing three-dimensional device behaviour, and in monitoring the changes in the environment near a device. By accessing system service – “Sensor_Service” sensorManager retrieve the values.
  2. Accelerometer sensor gives the values to detect shake. An accelerometer is an electromechanical device used to measure change in velocity with time. Change in velocity with time i.e. acceleration could be static, like force of gravity (g) or, as is the case with many mobile devices, dynamic to sense movement or vibrations. It measures the acceleration in m/s^2 .
  3. Values of coordinate x, y and z are taken

4.last = current

current = √ ((double) (x * x + y * y + z * z))

delta = current – last

accel = accel * 0.9f + delta

last = last value of acceleration retrieved,

current = current value of acceleration retrieved

  1. If (accel> 11)

Send message containing the current location of user for which GPSTracker is used and location is retrieved through it.
The raw sensor data from the x, y, and z axes are analysed and used to check the presence of movements. Here, we stabilize the sensor data values by filtering each value from the x, y, and z axes through the Low-cut filter. The resulting values are compared with the pre-selected Threshold value to judge the presence of movements on each axis. The highest value among the judged values is the directional value for the gesture. Then, we see if there is shake by integrating data values on

each axis. It’s needed to set up interval timings for measurements and need to determine the threshold value to judge movements as well as shake information. Threshold value of accel is set as 11, as a slight shake may not result into sending of message. Therefore, the threshold is kept so that when genuinely the device is shaken then only the shake may be sensored.

  1. Features

 

Features are the part of the application which uniquely identifies your application from the other applications. Every application is having their own advantages but to give more focus to your application we must provide the unique features so that it can be recognized by everyone.

 

  1. MODES

 

Every application consists of various modes, but this application consists of three modes which will help the user in various aspects of the road safety.

The first mode helps the user to give the information about the speed, through which it depicts the accurate speed and inform about the over speed by showing the color patterns as these patterns are changing with respect to speed.

The second mode can help the user to never over speeding in the parent mode, as some times user want to over speeding due to which the accident may occurs, so to overcome such situation we provide the parent mode which act like a parent as it reduce the speed by generating the message every time when the user reaches the speed limits & also communicating with parents. So that user can get the feedback of the driving, here the parents are the elders or friends.

The third mode help the travelers as people like to travel from here to there, as it helps in explore the new areas by navigating feature in this mode. But due to some situation may occur while travelling in which the person wants the help from friends. So, we provide the cab mode which generates the message by shacking only & sends the helping message to user friends.

  1. NAVIGATION

 

People don’t like to travel by seeing the navigation boards or by asking for the direction from strangers & always want the best route for the destination. So, application provides the navigation to the users to provide the best and shortest path for the destination by the help of GPS and Google maps.

  1. ACCURACY (GPS)

 

Most of the application provide the speed by the help of the sensory objects but it may not provide the accurate speed of the vehicle, so provide the accurate result we use the GPS which ping the satellites to calculate the accurate speed.

  1. AUTOMATIC Message Transfer

 

The application automatically generates the message when it detects the over speed and delivered to the parents by the help of one mode (parent mode) to reduce the chances of over speeding.

  1. TRAVELLER Friendly

 

Roaming on the planet some time creates the critical situation for the traveler which may lead your life in danger. So to overcome such situation we provide the feature for the travelers to help them, when travelers seems that something miss happening may done then he can shake the phones, it creates & sends the automatic helping message with the accurate location to the friends & also save the life of traveler[6].

  1. VIRTUAL Speedometer

 

Speedometer is a device which helping in calculate the speed of the vehicle, but this application gave the new look to the speedometer as it calculates the speed but also provide the color pattern, as the speed changes the patterns also changes.

  1. LOW Requirements

 

Application needs the libraries which help them to run on android operating system which is based on Linux Kernel   & with the help of grade build we are having the advance libraries in the android OS. So, this application can run on every android device as it builds in android Petit Four 1.1 which required the low requirements to install and execute.

  1. Future SCOPE

 

Nowadays, most of the applications have focused on the Geo-location for the purpose of tackling the speed from the devices. Some of them have been launched in the initial versions of the speed detection application, while others are in the prototype development stages. In this context, our application works for the public welfare purpose and this application has been recognized as an application that enhances road safety, increasing driving pleasure as well as encourages environmental protection. Development in application continues to increase the application ranges from the initial level to the advanced level [4].

  1. Auto Launch

 

In the Current scenario, the automatic application launcher is becoming more & more popular. It has incomparable benefits especially for road safety applications because it effectively reduces the time in fetching the permissions & also doesn’t disturb the user while driving.

As in the initial level, the application acquired the permission for launching the application but in the future, it will tackle the speed from the root and launches itself [5]. Here the root is define as a class consist of instance variables i.e. Service.Start_Sticky and finishAffinity() method that work as the main feature of the auto launcher  as it provide the service to the main activity(driver mode) and helps to never  destroy until the System.Exit(0) method called off. So, by the help of root it will easy to tackle the speed whenever it reaches the speed of 20km/hr. It automatically launches the application.

 

  1. Daily Analysis of driver’s behavior using IOT

 

IOT promises many applications in humans making life easier & safe. Road safety app provides the daily analysis of driver’s unusual behaviour using the threshold value with the help of Data Science. As the data set will understand, manage, and improve driver’s behaviour by providing the daily analysis report of driver’s driving history. So plug in device can be used into a vehicle, by the help of GPS & network we measure speed, signal breaking and wrong turn & this information is transmitted to servers where it has been analysed & provide the feedback to the driver to encourage to adopt a safe driving mode.

 

In this module, we can use GPS to track the user speed because the global positioning system will track the speed faster as compare to accelerometer & can give more accurate results because it’s a sensory object which tackle the speed by the help of axis rotation in which direction your sensor is moving. So they are helpful in augmented reality applications as they are helpful in fitness application and gaming application as they only track the footsteps only. But the Global Positioning System will help to calculate the positioning of the user in which part of planet the user is lies. As it calculates the positioning by the help of satellites and global positioning system inside your phones will combine the cell phone signal and GPS signal to calculate the more accurate location and give the accurate speed of the vehicle.

 

  1. Identification between the Passenger & Driver.

Most of the application will not correctly identify who is the driver and passenger, so by the help of radio button the Application can be divided in two modules Driver mode and Passenger mode.

 

In Driver mode it will provide all the three modes (Driver, Parent, Cab) while in Passenger mode it will provide only two modes (Parent, Cab).

 

VII. CONCLUSION

 

This report attempts to contribute to the body of knowledge on road safety. Smartphone has various sensors which can meet user needs as well as convenient input functions such as touch screen or button. The accelerator sensor is especially useful in detecting movement information by using the sensor output data on the x, y, and z axes in space. However, the detection information has some problems of ‘drift’ or ‘noise’. So, this paper proposes Kalmar filter for stable detection of the movement information. We also propose the algorithm which can detect gesture information such as ‘shake’ after integrating and then analyzing 3D movement information on x, y, and z axis. Experiments verify the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

Kalmar filter and the data collection based on interval measurements are effective for processing sensor data It is hoped that it will inspire and facilitate increased cooperation, innovation and commitment to preventing road traffic crashes around the world. Road traffic crashes are predictable and therefore preventable. In order to combat the problem, though, there needs to be close coordination and collaboration, using a holistic and integrated approach, across many sectors and many disciplines. While there are many interventions that can save lives and limbs, political will and commitment are essential and without them little can be achieved. The time to act is now.

Road users everywhere deserve better and safer road travel. Most road projects today involve modifications to existing roadways, and the planning, operation, and maintenance of such projects often are opportunities

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